Recorrido del cannabis por Europa
“…Tienen unos árboles que dan frutos extraños. Cuando aquellos hombres se reúnen, sentados formando un círculo alrededor del fuego, echan granos en la hoguera y se emborrachan con el humo que respiran, exactamente igual que le sucede a los griegos con el vino; y cuanto más fruto arrojan sobre él fuego, más se intoxicaban, hasta que se levantaban y danzaban, y se entregaban al canto” (Szasz, 1990). Así lo indican las escrituras del historiador griego Heródoto (484 al 425 a.C.).
Este ritual fue comprobado por los arqueólogos de Ukok, montañas de Altai de Siberia, cerca de la frontera entre Rusia, China, Mongolia y Kazajstán. Los científicos rusos descubrieron restos momificados de 2.000 años de antigüedad de una reina escita, elegantemente expuestos en seda blanca con cinturones de caballos, espejo, platos y pequeño recipiente ceremonial con restos de cenizas, que luego confirmaron que pertenecían al cannabis.
Los escitas, pueblo nómada indoeuropeo, llevaron el cannabis al sur de Rusia y a Ucrania, y de ahí se propagó a Europa. Como refiere Heródoto (484-424 a. de C.), en Grecia se utilizaron prendas de vestir elaboradas con cáñamo de cannabis. Alrededor del 300 a. de C., los romanos y cartagineses se disputaban las rutas marítimas del Mediterráneo debido al gran valor comercial de materias primas, de especias e, incluso, del cáñamo. Posteriormente (100 a. de C.) se hace referencia a la elaboración de papel a partir de una pasta a base de celulosa de morera y cáñamo. Por lo tanto, se puede concluir que se ha conferido al cáñamo una gran importancia cultural.
En Arabia, el médico Avicena (980-1037) mencionó el cannabis en su compendio El canon de la medicina. Hacia el año 1150, los musulmanes introdujeron el cáñamo en España con la finalidad de producir papel, se fundó el primer molino en la ciudad de Alicante y se intensificó el interés por la elaboración de textiles, vestimenta y cordelería.
El cultivo y el consumo de marihuana eran una práctica común entre las culturas, por lo que pasaban de una cultura a otra sin ninguna restricción. Por lo tanto, debido a la influencia de Oriente Medio y la India, el cultivo de cannabis se propagó por toda Europa, Asia y África esparciendo importantes rutas comerciales entre el viejo continente y el Lejano Oriente.
Cuando la cultura escita comenzó a ser sistemáticamente desafiada por el Imperio Romano, su influencia, junto con las propias tribus, empezó a decaer. Pero el consumo de marihuana continuó en otras culturas con las que habían entrado en contacto, empezando por la época romana y durando hasta comienzos del siglo XX.
En este aspecto, esta civilización fue sin duda uno de los grupos más influyentes en cuanto al aporte de conocimientos sobre la planta – y todos sus usos – en la actualidad
El cáñamo siguió siendo una parte importante de la vida en Rusia durante siglos. A partir del siglo XVIII, el país se convirtió en el mayor productor de cáñamo del mundo. Para el año 1740 aproximadamente, casi el 80 % del cáñamo utilizado en Europa se cultivaba en Rusia.
De hecho, el cáñamo era el bien más importante para los rusos, más lucrativo incluso que la madera, el metal o las pieles. Para el siglo XIX, la industria naval británica dependía casi por completo del cáñamo ruso, lo que fue razón suficiente para que Napoleón comenzará una guerra por el cáñamo.
El fin de la tribu que expandió el Cannabis por la cultura europea
A finales del siglo VI a.C. los griegos atravesaron el Bósforo para establecer varias colonias en la costa septentrional del mar Negro, allí entraron en contacto con los guerreros nómadas que ocupaban las infinitas estepas de lo que hoy es Ucrania y el sur de Rusia.
Los griegos, según el relato de Heródoto, se imaginaron a los escitas como un modelo de pueblo “bárbaro”, contrapuesto en todo a su modo de vida “civilizado”. Los mismos que fueron capaces de desafiar a los mayores imperios de Mesopotamia y crear un Estado complejo, una poderosa monarquía que tuvo un destacado papel histórico hasta su declive y desaparición en el siglo II a.C.
Para la historia griega fueron los grandes conquistadores en la Mesopotamia. Hacia 650 a.C. se habían apoderado de Media –en la Mesopotamia central–, del norte de Siria y de la costa levantina. Más tarde llegaron incluso a la frontera de Egipto, donde Psamético I tuvo que comprar su retirada.
Su dominio en Mesopotamia se prolongó 28 años, hasta que fueron expulsados por los medos. Pocos años después, sin embargo, los escitas repelieron una expedición de castigo enviada por Alejandro Magno y dieron muerte a su general.
El momento de la culminación de la tribu data a partir del siglo II a.C. Los celtas ocuparon la región balcánica, mientras los jinetes sármatas merodeaban por sus territorios del sur de Rusia, de los que terminaron por apoderarse.
Los reyes escitas Esciluro y Palaco aún fueron capaces de enfrentarse al rey Mitrídates VI del Ponto en el siglo I a.C. por el control del litoral de Crimea y otras zonas del mar Negro. Pero poco a poco, las informaciones sobre los escitas se fueron desvaneciendo en las fuentes clásicas, hasta que se les pierde totalmente la pista coincidiendo con el fortalecimiento de los galos y los sármatas.
Sin dudas los escitas fueron los percusores de la expansión del cannabis desde Asia, hasta las costas del Mar Negro y los hoy conocidos países balcánicos. Pero además, es de la primera tribu que la ciencia pudo comprobar su uso, no solo medicinal, sino en rituales fúnebres o para pedir mejores cosechas. Lo cual involucra al cannabis como planta sagrada para esta cultura.
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