El proyecto de ley consiguió el visto bueno de una comisión de la Cámara de Representantes.
El 4 de octubre, la Comisión primera de la Cámara de Representantes de Colombia aprobó una iniciativa para legalizar el cannabis recreativo, cuya discusión debe pasar ahora a debate plenario. De avalarse, Colombia se convertiría en uno de los pocos países a nivel global en haber despenalizado el uso lúdico de esta sustancia.
En el pasado dos propuestas similares ya fueron avaladas en la Comisión primera del país y aprobadas en primer debate, para luego ser archivadas y no volver a ser discutidas en el Congreso, por lo que la aprobación obtenida recientemente no debe ser considerada como el paso decisivo hacia la legalización del cannabis, sino como el primero de una serie de discusiones.
En años recientes, distintos países han legalizado y regularizado el consumo de marihuana con fines de uso lúdico. De acuerdo con datos difundidos en la reforma presentada por el congresista Carlos Ardila, en el continente americano solo Canadá y Uruguay, y parcialmente EE.UU. y México, han autorizado la marihuana con fines recreativos.
En tanto que en Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Jamaica, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú y Puerto Rico únicamente se permite el uso del cannabis con fines medicinales. En el resto de la región, la sustancia es considerada ilegal.
En Colombia, la Ley 30 de 1986 penalizó y prohibió el porte, consumo, producción y financiamiento de sustancias estupefacientes, entre ellas la marihuana, por lo que por años quedó restringido cualquier uso del cannabis.
La industria del cannabis, en cifras
Esta disposición cambió significativamente en 2016, cuando por medio de la Ley 1787, se permitió la producción, transformación y el uso con fines medicinales y científicos del cannabis y sus derivados.
La reforma recibió un gran impulso en julio de 2021, cuando, en el marco de la pandemia por coronavirus, Colombia expidió el Decreto 811, que autoriza la exportación de la flor seca de la marihuana en beneficio de la industria farmacéutica nacional.
De enero de 2017 a agosto de 2022, las autoridades del Ministerio de Justicia y del Derecho han otorgado 2.419 licencias para el cultivo de cannabis medicinal, que ha tenido un incremento interanual de 278 % de 2020 a 2021.
Mientras tanto, ProColombia, agencia gubernamental que promueve negocios internacionales, calcula que para el año 2030 las exportaciones de marihuana alcanzarán un valor de 1.733 millones de dólares, una cantidad superior a la de las flores, las segundas exportaciones no minero-energéticas más importantes para el país.
El proyecto de ley, aprobado con 31 votos a favor y solo uno en contra, busca autorizar el uso del cannabis más allá del sector salud, hacia un consumo libre entre personas mayores de edad.
Además plantea crear un sistema de fiscalización que le permita a los territorios decretar y percibir impuestos por actividades relacionadas con el uso del cannabis, para invertir únicamente en tres sectores: salud, educación y agricultura.
«Estamos descentralizando recursos para que las entidades territoriales resuelvan las problemáticas locales. No podemos ser ajenos a los impactos negativos que causa la industria del cannabis», escribió Ardila en su cuenta de Twitter.
Cabe destacar que Colombia es el segundo país con un mayor Índice de Crimen Organizado, con 7,67 puntos, solo por detrás de la República Democrática del Congo (7,75) y por encima de países como Myanmar (7,59) y México (7,57).
¿Qué opina la población?
A pesar del furor en el órgano legislativo a favor del uso recreativo del cannabis, la población parece no apoyar la legalización de la planta. Una encuesta de la firma Invamer reveló que en julio de 2022, el 49 % de los colombianos estaba en contra de legalizar la venta de marihuana recreativa.
Una tendencia que, sin embargo, ha ido a la baja desde agosto de 2021, cuando el rechazo se ubicaba en 54 %, según datos de la encuestadora. A pesar de dicho declive, la aprobación ciudadana se mantiene por debajo de la línea de rechazo, con el 44 % de la aceptación de los encuestados en julio pasado.
Más allá del rechazo social, lo cierto es que en Colombia el consumo de marihuana es alto. De acuerdo con los datos más recientes de la Oficina contra las Drogas y el Crimen de la Organización de Naciones Unidas, el cannabis es la sustancia de mayor consumo en Colombia, habiendo sido utilizada por el 56,1 % de los pacientes en tratamiento.
La reforma del político liberal Ardila es la segunda en discusión en el Congreso. El pasado 14 de septiembre, la Comisión primera también aprobó un proyecto de ley, propuesto por el representante del Partido Liberal Juan Carlos Losada, el cual legaliza el uso del cannabis recreativo en adultos, mediante la reforma al artículo 49 de la Constitución del país.
La propuesta de Ardila, además de ese artículo, también pretende modificar el artículo 287 y el 317, que hablan de la administración de recursos territoriales y la fiscalización.
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